Ganges Delta: Most Fertile Land for Growing Jute, Kenaf, & Roselle Hemp Fibers


Facts about the Ganges Delta and Jute Cultivation

The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited (GFTCL), Bangladesh


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THE GOLDEN FIBRE TRADE CENTRE LIMITED (GFTCL) is a Government Registered Private Limited Company in Bangladesh. The company is exclusively trading in Raw Jute, Roselle Hemp (Mesta), & Kenaf Fiber and Traditional & Diversified Jute Textile Products. Since its inception in 1988, the company has developed firm relationship with a large number of importers, a number of private and government procurement agencies around the world. We naturally claim ourselves to be one of the leaders in the field of Jute export in Bangladesh as well as in the world. Our expertise at the stages from the growers’ level, the manufacturing level, to the sophisticated buyers at the international market makes us unique and the leading Jute Exporter from Bangladesh. Firm linkage, product diversification capability, sophisticated quality management, and own manufacturing plant KHB Fibres Limited, Simura Non-woven Limited, and Simura Technical Fibres & Products Limited (proposed) are our major strengths. Moreover, our strictness about the buyers' requirement, makes us one of the major Jute exporters from Bangladesh. Our talented and experienced manufacturing, research, and marketing crew is able to provide you the best quality in the world in the right time.

Ganges Delta = Bengal Delta Plane + Numerous Distributaries & Channels. Ganges Delta is the most fertile land in the world to cultivate Jute and other allied fibres (Roselle Hemp, Kenaf, etc.).

The Photograph of The Ganges Delta: The Largest Delta in The World (Photo Credit: NASA & Wikimedia)


Delta or Delta Land

A Delta (Delta land) is formed from the silts (soil or rock particles) from decaying mountains.  These silts are washed away and driven by the river water (often by other ways) to the mouth or end point, where it meets the ocean. Therefore, the decaying mountains with the help of rivers gradually form small islands near the insertion point of the river and ocean. The gradually compiled silts creates island shaped as a triangle (looks like the Capital Greek letter, Delta-Δ). That's why it is called the Delta land. The most significant delta in the world are: The Nile Delta, The Mississippi Delta, The Rhine Delta, The Orinoco Delta and the big Ganges Delta.

If the tidal force of the sea or the ocean is not strong, then the silts, muds, and sediments doesn't wash away. This gradually creates lot of small (Delta) islands and channels (called Distributaries) at the mouth of the river. In this way, a river can also make several of its own branches. So, the delta regions are also blessed with many small rivers. With mineral affluent silts and plenty of water (or river) make such regions most fertile lands and ideal area for cultivation of any crop, like: Jute, Tea, Rice, etc.


The Ganges Delta

The Ganges Delta is a Riverine Delta in the South Asia region of Bengal. The Ganges Delta region is situated just above the Bay of Bengal and major portion of it is occupied by Bangladesh. The delta is over 220 miles (350 kilometers) wide along the Bay of Bengal (According to NASA). As the silts are brought in by the rivers annually by normal (river water) flow and flood, the Ganges Delta is a growing Delta. It is the world's largest Delta and being most fertile and vegetated alluvial land, it is also called The Green Delta (which also a nick name for Bangladesh). The Ganges Delta is also called the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Delta.

It arises from the confluence of the following major rivers:

The Ganges Delta  mostly consists of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal of India. However, it covers more than 105 sqr km and reaches over China, Bhutan, and Nepal also. It is composed of a labyrinth of waterways, swamps, lakes and alluvial deposits (locally referred as Chars).

This region occupies the 4th largest primary language (i.e. Bangla) population, which is strongly competing with the English language population (the 3rd largest). It occupies the great Bengal Delta Plane woven with numerous small and and large rivers. The Ganges Delta also occupies the largest Mangrove Forest in the world - The Sunderbans. This forest is located at the South-Western coast of Bangladesh and it is also occupied by India (Please refer to the picture above and locate the wide dark green area in the South-Western coast). The Sunderbans is the legendary sanctuary for the famous Royal Bengal Tiger. The weather of this region is controlled by Monsoon Climate.

The Ganges Delta or The Great Bengal Plane can be broken into 3 major regions, viz.


Jute Cultivation in The Ganges Delta

* Jat area is the world's best place for high quality Jute production


Map of Jute Cultivation Area in Bangladesh (Major portion of Ganges Delta)

Bangladesh occupies major portion of the Ganges Delta. Even though India is currently the major producer of Jute & Jute Products; for centuries, Bangladeshi Jute had and still has demand in the international market for higher quality fibers. This fact makes Bangladesh the major exporter (80%+ market share) of Jute Fiber in the world; while India has nominal dominance over export of Raw Jute Fiber. The Indian law to compulsorily use Jute Bags for Bulk Packaging forces India to locally consume almost all of the Raw Jute Fibers to meet the ever increasing demand of 1 Billion population. In some cases, India also Import relatively finer Raw Jute Fiber from Bangladesh.

Jute is the most important natural fibre after cotton. It is the widely cultivated natural or vegetable fiber after cotton. More than 85% of world production of Jute is cultivated in the Ganges Delta. This region thus has great influence over the world economy for fiber and textile products. Therefore, having the major portion of the Ganges Delta, Bangladesh became the largest producer of Raw Jute or Jute Fiber in the world and for having sophisticated technology, India has became the largest producer/manufacturer of Jute made products in the world.

Jute cultivation is dependant on the climate, season, and soil. The suitable climate for growing Jute is warm and wet climate, which is offered by the Monsoon Climate during the Fall Season, immediately followed by Summer. Temperature ranging 70º-100º F and relative humidity of 70%-80% are favorable for Jute Cultivation. Sufficient rainfall (2"-3") during the sowing period and at same with weekly interval considered sufficient for Jute Cultivation.

The soil of the Ganges Delta creates a great platform for growing Jute and other allied fibers. Rich loam and riverine silts make the best composition of soil and mineral structure for growing Jute. Each year additional silts are brought in by the flood, a devastating phenomenon that blesses the production of Jute and other crops. Therefore, the century-old experienced Jute farmers in this Bengal region pay a lot of miseries to make quality Jute Fiber available to the world market at a cheap price.

The cultivation of Jute has been described below, according to the its regions:

Brahmaputra Alluvium (In terms of Jute Cultivation - this region is also called The Jat Area)

The area is inundated and replenished every year by fresh deposit of silts carried down by the flood water. Soils are acidic in nature, the texture varies from sandy loam to clayey loam. According to commercial gradation,  the best quality Jute, the Jat type, grows in this area. Most portion of jute fiber cultivated in Bangladesh is grown in this region.


Ganges Alluvium (In terms of Jute Cultivation - this region is also called the District Area)

The soils are in the alkaline side of neutrality. The feature ranges from clay loam to light loam, color being gray to dark gray. The type of Jute grown in this area is known as District Jute, which is next to Jat Jute in order of quality. The District Area can be divided into Soft District Area, Hard District Area, and Non-classified District Area. The Non-classified District Area usually produce lesser amount of Jute Fiber than other areas.


Teesta Silt (In terms of Jute Cultivation - this region is also called the Northern Area)

The soil is sandy and ahs lower moisture retention capacity. Soil retention is in the acidic side of neutrlity. Northern type of Jute, inferior quality of the three commercial types, grows in this tract.

Video of Cultivation & Growing of Jute: Sowing, Harvesting, and Retting


External Resources on The Ganges Delta

Satellite Images of the Ganges Delta at GESource World Guide

The page shows 17 satellite images (covering Bangladesh and India) gathered from a range of sources, including NASA Image Exchange, Visible Earth, and The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. However, if you would like to view the other river deltas in the world, please follow this link.

NASA (Johnson Space Center) : Ganges-Brahmaputra River Delta

The great Ganges-Brahmaputra River Delta of Bangladesh and India is the subject of this east-looking, oblique photograph. As the rivers empty, they carry large quantities of sediment into the Bay of Bengal. The delta (center of the photograph) is over 220 miles (350 kilometers) wide along the Bay of Bengal. The darker colored mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, a great wilderness of swamps, dense timber forests, small islands, and tidal creeks covering 6526 square miles (16 900 square kilometers), occupy the middle of the delta. The Sundarbans, a vast wildlife preserve, is one of the few remaining sanctuaries in India that is home of the world-famous Bengal tiger. The delta stretches from the Hooghly River in India (west of the Sundarbans) eastward to the Meghna River in Bangladesh. The Ganges, the most sacred river of Hindu India, can be seen in the photograph as it runs north of the Sundarbans, joining with the Brahmaputra River just west of Dacca (not distinguishable in the photograph). The dark, forested Khasi Hills are situated northeast of the convergence of the Ganges River and the Brahmaputra River. During the summer monsoon (late June through early October), tropical cyclones can form in the southern Bay of Bengal, proceed northward, and make landfall over the delta region, causing flooding, heavy damage to crops and shelters, and loss of human life....

Banglapedia : Ganges-Padma River System

(If the page doesn't load, then try the cached versions in the search engines)

In the deltaic part of the Bengal basin the Ganges is 1.6 to 8.0 km wide and despite having broad meanders shows a braided character. In the western part of the Ganges delta most of the rivers show a rather decaying tendency. The pattern of the drainage system however maintains a typical complex picture. The northern rivers of this part of the delta are generally fed with spillage from the main channel of the Ganges and runoff water of the monsoon rains. A small quantity of underground seepage-water is also added to the flow. The southern channels are obviously affluently drained with the tidal saline water of the Bay of Bengal......

Kent National Grid for Learning (NGfL) : Delta

Rivers move slowly at the river mouth. The river carries a lot of sediment and mud. The river deposits (drops) its sediment and mud at its mouth. This sediment and mud spreads out into a fan- like shape, or delta, across the mouth of the river.....


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Facts About the Ganges Delta and High Quality Jute Cultivation

Last modified: May 19, 2009 at 06:36:54 PST