Jute, Kenaf, Roselle Hemp Information & Export/Trade Links in Bangladesh & India


The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited (GFTCL)

Leading Exporter of Gunny, Hessian, Burlap, Roselle, Kenaf, and Jute Products from Bangladesh


GFTCL: Jute Fiber & Burlap Products Exporter from Bangladesh GFTCL: Jute Fibre & Hessian Products Exporter in Bangladesh GFTCL : Fournisseur et Exportateur de Fibre de Jute et Produits de Jute du Bangladesh GFTCL: Lieferant u. Exporteur von Jutefaser u. Jute-Produkte von Bangladesch GFTCL: Fornitore & Esportatore di Fibra della Iuta/Juta/Corcoro & prodotti della Iuta/Juta/Corcoro dalla Bangladesh GFTCL: Surtidor y Exportador Fibra del Yute y Productos del Yute de Bangladesh

Джута Экспортер مصدرالجوتة 황마의 수출상 ジュート 輸出人 黄麻出口商

Use Jute ||| It is Natural ||| It is Versatile, Durable, and Reusable ||| It is Cheap and Superior to Synthetics ||| It is Free from Health Hazards and Environment Pollution ||| It is the Major Solution for the Eco-friendly Production of Tomorrow


THE GOLDEN FIBRE TRADE CENTRE LIMITED (GFTCL) is a Government Registered Private Limited Company in Bangladesh. The company is exclusively trading in Raw Jute, Burlap, Sacks, Traditional Jute Goods, and Diversified Jute Products. Since its inception in 1988, the company has developed firm relationship with a large number of importers, a number of private and government procurement agencies around the world. We naturally claim ourselves to be one of the leaders in the field of Jute export in Bangladesh as well as in the world. Our expertise at the stages from the growers’ level, the manufacturing level, to the sophisticated buyers at the international market makes us unique and leading Jute Exporter from Bangladesh. Firm linkage, product diversification capability, sophisticated quality management, and own manufacturing plant KHB Fibres Limited & Simura Technical Fibres & Products Limited (proposed) are our major strengths. Moreover, our strictness about the buyers' requirement, makes us one of the major Jute exporters from Bangladesh. Our talented and experienced manufacturing, research, and marketing crew is able to provide you the best quality in the world in the right time.


Jute : The Golden Fiber


Cultivation of Jute in the Ganges Delta


Jute Plant: GFTCL - Exporter of Raw Jute

Jute Plant

Green Jute Stem: GFTCL - Exporter of Raw Jute

Green Jute Stem

Jute Fiber: GFTCL - Exporter of Raw Jute Fiber

Jute Fiber


Retted Jute Stem: GFTCL - Exporter of Raw Jute

Retted Jute Stem



If you would like to know more, then Click Here for More Information on Jute



Allied Institutes & Associations


Ministry of Textiles and Jute (MoT&J) : Jute Link


Ministry of Jute (MoJ) was created in 1976 as a separate ministry through elevating the Jute Division, which was functioning under the Ministry of Finance. Bangladesh was the only country in the world having an exclusive ministry to look after the cause of jute. However, due to the heavy success of textile industry in Bangladesh, a separate ministry for jute was converted or merged as the Ministry of Textile and Jute (MoT&J). The ministry has two different divisions for Textile and Jute. The Jute Links Page (Referred page) contains information about MOT&J, Jute Policy of Bangladesh, Statistics on Jute in Bangladesh, Visual Display of Jute Cycle, Jute Producing Areas in Bangladesh, and Jute Diversification Promotion Centre (JDPC).


Contact Details:

Bangladesh Secretariat, Dhaka - 1000, Bangladesh.
Telephone : +88-02-7168766


International Jute Study Group (IJSG)


The International Jute Study Group (IJSG) is an inter-governmental body set up under the aegis of UNCTAD to function as the International Commodity Body (ICB) for Jute, Kenaf and other Allied Fibers. IJSG, the legal successor to the erstwhile International Jute Organisation (IJO), was established on 27 April 2002, to administer the provisions and supervise the operations of the Agreement establishing the Terms of Reference of the International Jute Study Group, 2001. The organization is the outcome of a series of meetings and UNCTAD conferences, which commenced in March 2000 in Geneva and concluded in April 2001 also in Geneva. The website contains various information about Jute, Kenaf, and Allied Fibers. It is a site for comprehensive information about Jute cultivation, Jute Processing, Jute prices, investment information on Jute, news about Jute & Jute Products, R&D and projects on Jute, Information Centre & library on Jute related materials, etc.


You can find our Associate Member Reference Page at IJSG, Here: The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited


Contact Details:

International Jute Study Group (IJSG)
145 Monipuripara, Near Farmgate, Tejgaon
Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh
Tel : +88-02-9125581~5 (PABX)
Fax : +88-02-9125248~9 (2 lines)



Jute Diversification Promotion Centre (JDPC)


The Jute Diversification Promotion Centre (JDPC) is a promoting agency funded and powered by the Ministry of Textile & Jute of the Government of Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. It is located at the same premises of International Jute Study Group (IJSG). JDPC has identified Diversified Jute Products and categorized them into three categories and ten groups. A few of the mentioned products are: Pulp, Paper, Paper Products, Jute composites, Wood/Plastic substitutes, Non-woven products, Jute Wipes, Medicare textiles, Jute Absorbents, Pillow/Quilts Fillers, Insulation materials, Bonding materials, Cellulose, Cellulose derivatives, CMC, MCC, Tech-fibres, Sheets, Panels, Floor tiles, Damp proofing sheet, Finer yarn, Bleached yarn, Dyed yarn, Dehaired yarn, Polished yarn, Coated Yarn, Woollenized yarn, Blended yarn, Fancy yarn, Fused yarn, Core yarn, Cable yarn, Other treated yarn, Multiflied yarn, Fire retardant or fireproof yarn, Corded yarn, Hammock, Shikka, Shoe, Shoe upper, Shoe sole, Sandals, Door mat, Belts, Tape, Lace, Braids, Braided Rugs, Door cheecks, Door & window screen, Sweater, Cardigan, Jackets, Muffler, Caps, Carrying kits, Knitted wears, Knitted bags, Light fabric, designed fabric, Stripped fabric, Checked fabric, Dyed fabric, Bleached fabric, Treated fabric, Union Fabric, Woollenized fabric, Laminated fabric, Printed fabric, Calendar, Suitcase, Brief case, Gift boxes, Pots, Purses, Hold-all, Seminar Bags, Folders & Files, Beach products, Jewellery box, Denim, Drill, Suiting, Shirting, Sheeting, Scarf, Dress materials, Chaddar, Tapestries, Curtains, Home textiles, Furnishing fabric, Bed cover, Sofa cover, Cushion cover, Pillow cover, Scrim cloth, Apparels, Quilts, Venetian blind, Backroom, Canvas, Tarpaulin, Carpet, Blanket, Mats, Satranji, Wall mat, Table mats, Prayer mats, Running mats, Technical Textile, Geotextiles, Brattic, Linoleum backing cloth, Floor covers, Grocery bags, Shopping bags, Carry bags, Laundry bags, Garbage bags, School bags, Travel bags & kits, Havre sacks, Shoulder bags, Vanity bags, Purses, Toys, Decorative Products, Berets, Nursery pots/sheet/square, etc.


Contact Details:

IJSG Bhaban, 145 Manipuri para, Tejgaon, Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh.
Telephone : +88-02-9145511

PABX : +88-02-9125581~85
Fax : +88-02-9121523



Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI)


Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI) was established in 1951 in order to conduct research to improve jute crops and products. Presently, the institute is active in Agricultural Research, Technological Research, Economics and Marketing Research on Jute and Allied Fibers. BJRI has developed many new Jute-based products. The focus on the improvement of Jute and diversification of jute products. BJRI website is located at the Bangladesh Government's old web site (www.bangladeshgov.org). The webpage includes information on Agricultural  & Technological Research on Jute and Allied Fibers, Economics & Marketing Research, and its affiliates institute - "Jute and Textile Products Development Centre".


Contact Details:

Manik Mia Avenue
Sher-e-Bangla Nagar
Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.
Telephone: +88-02-8121829, 9118415, 8121831~35 (PABX)
Fax: +88-02-9118415



Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation (BJMC)


The Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation (BJMC) was established as a statutory body under the Presidential Order 27 of 26 March 1972. Through this order, the overall operation, management, maintenance and future development agenda of all the jute mills of Bangladesh under private ownership and erstwhile East Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (EPIDC) were placed under BJMC. The main objectives of the organization were to run the jute mills under a single organization and to expand the industry towards augmenting foreign exchange earning from jute goods. The BJMC website contains information on Jute, Bangladesh, News & Events, photo-galleries, etc.


Contact Details:

Adamjee Court (Annexe-1),
115-120, Motijheel Commercial Area

Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
Telephone : +88-02-9558182~6, 9558192~6
Fax : +88-02-9564740, 9567508



Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industries (DCCI)


The Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry (DCCI) is the first point of contact for business in this country. It facilitates commerce for the local as well as foreign entrepreneurs to catering their demands in penetrating into a new market. The DCCI is a limited company incorporated under the companies Act. It was established in 1956. It is largest chamber of the country. The DCCI is a high profile non-profit service organization whose function is very relevant to the innovators business community. Both local and foreign entrepreneurs come to the DCCI with request of services they need-they are unaware of the other services that the DCCI offers.


You can find our page located in the Dhaka Chamber website, here: The Golden Fibre Trade Centre Limited


Contact Details:

DCCI Building
65-66 Motijheel C/A
Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
Telephone: +88-02-9552562
Fax: +88-02-9560830


Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) of Bangladesh


Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) Bangladesh is under the Ministry of Commerce, entrusted with the responsibilities of promoting export of the country. It is mainly responsible for: Formulating policy & program for active promotion of exports, Coordinating export development efforts, Monitoring and Evaluating national export performance, Promotional activities in product development, Exploring markets of exportable abroad, Organizing participation in international trade fairs abroad, Conducting studies, surveys, research etc. for expansion and diversification of export. EPB is the Public Trade Promotion Center in Bangladesh. The site contains very helpful information about international trade involving Bangladesh.


Contact Details:

TCB Bhaban, 1-2, Kawran Bazar C/A

Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
Tel: +88-02-9144821~4, 9128377, 8151496, 8112427 (PABX)
Fax: +88-02-9119531



Shippers' Council of Bangladesh (SCB)

The Shippers' Council of Bangladesh was formed with the Shippers' related to international business in Bangladesh. SCB is the member body of Federation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation Shippers’ Council (FASC).


Contact Details:

Moon Mansion (3 rd Floor)
12 Dilkusha C/A.
Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
Phone: +880-2-9556494, 9568520
Fax: +880-2-9568520, 9560830



About Jute : Articles & Resources


FAO Corporate Document Repository : Jute, Kenaf, and Allied Fibres


Jute and Kenaf are cultivated almost exclusively in developing countries of East Asia and in some parts of Latin America. Bangladesh, India and Thailand account for over 90 percent of world production. The fibre is processed mainly in the producing countries themselves and is used for the manufacturing of traditional products such as Hessian cloth, food grade bags, carpet backing and other floor covering. Diversified jute products, such as geo-textiles and composites are also manufactured in relatively small quantities. Jute constitutes a low proportion of the value of world trade, but its cultivation and processing is labour-intensive and therefore provides a livelihood and an important source of food security for many farmers and their families in Asia.


Jute Production

Jute is predominantly a rain-fed annual crop. Its cultivation is labour-intensive, but it requires relatively small quantities of other inputs, such as fertilizer and pesticides, and can be carried out in smallholdings. For these reasons, jute production is increasingly concentrated in Bangladesh, India, China and Thailand, which from 1998-2000, together accounted for more than 95 per cent of the world production, compared to a share of 90 percent in the early 1970s. Jute competes for land with food crops such as paddy rice in Bangladesh and India, and cassava in Thailand. Land allocation between rice and jute depends on the relativity of price levels and price variability. In general, producers attempt to adopt a multi-cropping strategy with jute in rotation with paddy. Nevertheless, substitution between the two crops does take place, as producers attempt to minimize the risk of lower paddy yields that result from delayed paddy transplanting. However, depending on the region, the possibilities of substituting paddy rice for jute may be limited due to flooding....

Consumption of Jute

Jute is used to make yarn for the manufacturing of traditional products such as Hessian cloth, sacks, carpet backing and other floor covering materials. In developing countries, it is consumed mainly in the form of Hessian cloth and food grade bags for cereals and sugar, while carpet backing is the main jute product consumed in developed countries. Diversified products such as composites, geo-textiles, paper pulp and decorative materials comprise a small proportion of total consumption. During the past decade, world jute consumption contracted as the market continued to be shaped by two important factors, namely the intensity of competition with, and the displacement by, synthetic fibres, and the extension of commodity bulk-handling facilities. These factors contributed to a 16 percent decrease in world jute consumption from 3.4 million tonnes of fibre equivalent in 1988-90 to 2.9 million tonnes in 1998-2000. In developed countries the decline in consumption of jute products amounted to 40 percent from 668 000 tonnes in 1988-90 to 395 000 tonnes in 1990-2000. In developing countries, the jute market contracted by 10 percent from 2.8 million tonnes in 1988-90 to 2.5 million tonnes in 1998-2000....

During the last decade, diversified uses of jute accounted for small quantities of fibre. However, their share in the value of total exports is rising. Diversified jute products include geo-textiles for land erosion control, jute-reinforced plastics, jute laminates, pulp and paper, decorative fabrics, carpets and handicrafts. Between 1997-1998 and 2001-2002, the share of exports of diversified jute goods from India increased in terms of value from 10 percent to 24 percent of total export value, highlighting the potential for growth in the medium term and the opportunity for market expansion given effective research and development strategies and intensified marketing efforts.

In the period from 1998-2000 to 2010, global consumption of jute is expected to continue to contract due to competition from polypropylene and bulk-handling technology. It is projected that global consumption will decline by 1.07 percent per year from 2.89 million tonnes in 1998-2000 to 2.62 million tonnes in 2010. Consumption of jute and jute products in the developed countries is expected to continue to decline in the medium term, albeit at a slower rate than in the 1990s. A slowdown in the contraction of the market may reflect the gradual exhaustion of substitution possibilities between jute and competing products or technologies, at least in these countries. In the developing countries, consumption is expected to decline at an annual rate of 0.95 percent from 2.49 million tonnes in 1998-2000 to 2.33 million tonnes in 2010.

In India, the largest market in the world, consumption of jute products is likely to remain at approximately 1.6 million tonnes in spite of the revised administrative regulations that determine the shares of jute and synthetic fibres in food grade sacks for agricultural commodities. The new provisions, introduced in the 2002-2003 season, allow a reduction in the amount of food-grains packed in jute from 100 per cent to 80 percent and a reduction in the amount of sugar packed in jute from 90 percent to 75 per cent. These percentages are to be further reduced in the 2003-2004 season to 60 percent for food-grains and 50 percent for sugar. These relaxations of the regulations are expected to weaken demand for jute in India, exert a downward pressure on its price, and reduce the jute market growth below that during the last decade. However, there are some factors, such as the preference for jute packaging for food-grains due to its breathability, as well as jute sacks re-usability, that may work to offset the impact of these regulations.

In the medium term, jute consumption in Bangladesh is projected to grow at an annual rate of approximately 1 percent from 152 000 tonnes in 1998-2000 to 162 000 tonnes in 2010. This is partly due to the ban imposed on polythene shopping bags introduced in 2002 for environmental reasons, which should strengthen demand for jute. In China, it is expected that the consumption of jute will decline at around 13 percent per annum, faster than during the last decade, because of increases in the capacity of synthetic fibre production plants and the subsequent intense competition by synthetic sacks. Consumption in other countries in the Far East, such as Thailand, Viet Nam, Nepal and Pakistan, is also expected to continue to decline, while in the Near East, consumption is expected to grow at a slow rate, mainly driven by increases in the consumption of yarn for carpet backing in Iran. In Africa and Latin America, consumption is projected to follow a downward trend due to competition by synthetic packaging materials.

Jute Trade

During the period from 1998-2000 to 2010, trade in both jute fibre and products contracted by 3.0 percent annually, following a long-term downward trend determined initially by the shift of the processing industry from developed to developing countries, as well as by faster rates of decline in consumption in non-producing than in the producing countries. As a result, global trade during the 1990s accounted for a diminishing proportion of total global production. In the medium term, as consumption in both non-producing and producing countries continues to decline, it is expected that trade in jute fibre and products will contract slowly from 948 000 tonnes in 1998-2000 to 920 000 tonnes in 2010.

As the jute processing industry has now shifted entirely to the developing countries, exports of yarn are expected to decline in line with the global market. Intense competition by polypropylene will depress trade in Hessian cloth, which is likely to decline at a faster rate than total trade. Sacking and carpet backing are likely to be the main jute products exported. Bangladesh is expected to remain the largest net exporting country accounting for over 75 percent of world trade in aggregated jute fibre and goods. However, exports are projected to contract in line with the global market developments by an annual rate of 0.62 percent from 742 000 tonnes in 1998-2000 to 703 000 tonnes in 2010. Net exports from India, the second largest net exporting country, are expected to remain stable at approximately 185 000 tonnes.

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China Consulting Inc. : Jute – An Environmentally Friendly Product


It is estimated that total world production of jute fluctuates around 3 million tons each year. For example, in 1999/2000, total world production of jute and kenaf was 2.6 million tons. Jute production was 2.09 million tons, among which, production from Bangladesh accounted for 68%, India for 30% and Myanmar and Nepal for 1% each. Total kenaf production in 1999/2000 was 0.51 million tons, among which production from China accounted for 44%, India for 39%, and Thailand for 12%. Of the total world jute production, five producing countries, namely Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal and Thailand account for about 95%. These countries also account for 90% of export of jute products.


Jute is a fast growing field crop with high carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rate. Jute plants clean the air by consuming large quantities of CO2, which is the main cause of the greenhouse effect. Theoretically, one hectare of jute plants can consume about 15 tons of CO2 from atmosphere and release about 11 tons of oxygen in the 100 days of the jute-growing season. Studies also show that the CO2 assimilation rate of jute is several times higher than that of trees. (Inagaki, 2000)


Jute is a seasonal crop harvested at least once a year. Moreover, jute is a fast-growing crop, i.e. it reaches a height of 1.5 to 4.5 meters in a period of 4 to 5 months. The average dry stem production of jute ranges from 20-40 ton per hectare, annually. This contrasts with the production of the fastest growing wood plant which needs at least 10 to 14 years from plantation to harvest, and produces only 8 to 12 ton per hectare annually. Because the biological efficiency of kenaf is much higher than that of wood plants, the use of jute instead of wood to make paper pulp will lower substantially the cost of production. It will also reduce deforestation.

The International Jute Organization undertook in 1992 - a comparative study of jute and polypropylene (pp) used as packaging material conducted by the IJO in 1992 concluded that "the life-cycle of jute products can be classified as less environmentally damaging than that of polypropylene. The study presented also a number of specific conclusions/facts:

Jute fibres have the potential to compete with glass fibre, as reinforcing agents in plastics. Technologies exist that make it possible to incorporate jute fibre into polypropylene. The resulting jute composite granules can be used in thermoforming processing techniques, such as injection moulding and compressing moulding. Products made from jute reinforced composites have the advantage of low cost, low density, renewability and biodegradability. This composite can be used,

Applications of jute reinforced composites are expected to have a significant positive environmental impact. This contrasts with the situation existing at present, because the packaging industry is responsible for about one-third of the plastic consumption in developed countries, and accounts for the production of 20.8% of total solid waste and 3.7% of energy consumption..................


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Ministry of Textiles and Jute (MoT&J) : Jute Link


About Jute

Jute is the name of the plant as well as fibre crop of international eminence. It is the most important cash crop, industrial raw material and the biggest foreign exchange-earner of Bangladesh. The bast fibre - jute is obtained from the bark of mainly two cultivated species of the genus Corchorus namely, C. capsularis L. and C. olitorius L of the family Tiliaceae. The fibre extracted from the plant C. capsularis is commonly known as White or Deshi pat and those from the C. olitorius is known as Tossa or Bagi pat. From ancient time jute has been cultivated in India more or less as a garden plant. Its leaves were used as vegetable or medicine. The fibre value of the plant came to be known much later and today jute is grown almost solely for its fibres.

Jute is bio-degradable, strong, non-toxic, hygroscopic, less extensible, coarse and cheap fibre. It is a quickly available fibrous biomass. Its production is very high as compared to other biomasses. 98 kg per day per hectare is produced against the 29 kg per day per hectare, in case of forest products. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the major elements of jute fibre. Jute plant produces jute fibre and juute stick in the proportion of 1:2. Cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin , protein and some colouring materials are the constituents of jute fibre and sticks.

Jute Cultivation: Sowing to Harvesting

Jute grows in any tropical climate. However, a hot and humid climate and yet not incessant rainfall is the essential conditions of successful cultivation of jute crop. Temperature ranging from 70°F to 100°F and relative humidity, 70-90%, is favorable for growing jute. With the exception of rocky and poor sandy soils, all soils are adapted for jute cultivation. Rich loam of coarse, gives the best result. The stages of jute cultivation till obtaining the fibre crop are described below. Of the two types of commercial jute, White jute grows on medium low to medium high land and can even stand in water at maturity, whereas, Tossa jute grows on medium high to high land and cannot stand water logging. In November to December, land preparation starts in the low lands. High or medium high land preparations start from January to February. Two ploughings and two cross-ploughings with ladderings and hoeings are a sufficient preparation with occasional stirring is essential for aeration and for achieving fine tilth. Generally, sowing takes place from February to April according to the position and condition of the land, nature of soil and the amount of rainfall. Experimental evidences are that the ideal time of sowing for maximum yield is 15 March to 15 April for Capsularis or White jute and 15 April to 15 May for Olitorius or Tossa jute. The methods of planting jute normally practiced are broadcasting, line-sowing and even over-planting unless there is acute scarcity of seeds. By adopting line-sowing method, plant population and accordingly fibre yield can be increased by 25-50% with at least 25% less cost of cultivation. Thus line-sowing method is highly recommended. The method of transplanting of jute is adopted in case of gap filling only. Jute crop is infested with a large number of weeds. Thus, weeding are required at least 3 times just within a month and a half from the date of sowing. The usual method of weeding and thinning of broadcast planted crop is done mostly during the first 8 weeks after sowing. There is practice of thinning even at the age of 3 months. Though, the earlier the thinning is done, the better it is for the growth of the rest of the plants. Best results are obtained when it is done within 3 weeks from sowing. Surface cultivation or hoeing as well as mulching is adopted for conserving moisture, as it is beneficial for jute cultivation. For getting a best combination of fibre quality and yield, about 120 days after sowing is found to be the optimum time for harvesting.


Jute Fiber Extraction: Retting to Saleable Fibers

After harvesting, the plants are tied into bundles consisting of 50 to 60 plants and left in the field for 4 to 5 days for their leaves to be shed. The leaves are then well shaken off from the bundles. The bundles are carried to retting place and steeped in water in heaps. The heaps are sometimes covered with water hyacinth or tied with log for keeping them immersed under water. Steeping of the harvested jute plants are done in fairly deep, clean but gently flowing stagnant water. Retting of jute plants for extraction of fibre is a complex biochemical process, which is one of the vital activities of fibre extraction. Fibre quality is greatly dependent on the condition of retting. Retting takes place due to the activity of bacteria. In the hot weather i.e. from July to September the retting is finished in 10 to 21 days, according to the age of the plant. After retting, bundles of retted plants are taken out from water then the fibre is extracted from individual plants or a number of plants at a time by hand. In this process both fibre and stick remain clean and in tact. Each bundle of fibres extracted from a bundle of stick is washed well by swinging and shaking them in water until all non-fibrous materials are washed away and the fibres are clean. 20 to 30 small bundles of fibres are made into a big bundle and allowed to stay overnight for rinsing the water. Next day the fibres are exposed to sunlight and continued for 2-3 days till the fibers are fairly dry. Dry jute fibre is then again made bundles of about 4 kg each and thus is made ready for sale.


Flowchart of Jute Cultivation & Jute Fiber Extraction

Flowchart of Jute Cultivation & Jute Fiber Extraction

(Picture courtesy: Ministry of Textiles and Jute - MoT&J)


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US Library of Congress: Country Studies - Bangladesh (Industrial Crop - Jute)


The importance of one cash crop overshadows all else as the source of Bangladesh's export earnings. Bangladesh is the world's largest producer of jute, a fibrous substance used in making burlap, sacks, mats, rope and twine, and carpet backing. Jute is sold on the international market either raw or in the form of manufactured goods. This so-called "golden fiber" is cultivated on the same land as rice; thus each season farmers must decide which crop to plant.

During the colonial period, when East Bengal was used by the British to produce primary goods for processing elsewhere, raw jute was the main product. Calcutta became the manufacturing center where jute was transformed into twine and rope, sacking material, and carpet backing. The partition of British India in 1947 put an international boundary between the source of the basic commodity and the manufacturing center and imposed a great burden on Pakistan to compensate for the disruption of the industry that was its greatest source of foreign earnings. Between 1947 and 1971 jute mills were constructed in East Pakistan, but industrialization proceeded slowly.

In the 1960s, petroleum-based synthetics entered the market, competing with jute for practically all of its uses. The upheavals culminating in the emergence of independent Bangladesh drove many traditional buyers of jute to shift to synthetics. World trade in jute and jute goods declined absolutely from 1.8 million tons in 1970 to 1.5 million tons in 1982. Despite some major year-to-year swings, prices fell precipitously through the mid-1980s. Prices were too low to cover the costs of production, but the government nonetheless deemed it essential to subsidize growers and industry and ensure the continued existence of as large a foreign market as possible. Ironically, Bangladesh's indispensable foreign exchange earner was thus itself a drain on the economy.

There have been enormous year-to-year fluctuations both of producer prices and of production. An extreme example occurred between FY 1984 and FY 1986. Carry-over stocks had been run down since the previous production surge in FY 1980, and serious floods in 1984 resulted in unanticipated production losses. The price doubled to US$600 per ton at the export level, which triggered the traditional response of farmers; they planted much more of their land in jute, and between one year and the next production rose more than 50 percent, from 5.1 million bales in FY 1985 to 8.6 million bales the following year. History proved true to itself yet again when export prices then fell by 50 percent at the export level and by more than 30 percent at the farm-gate level. The drop would have been even greater had the government not intervened. It bought 30 percent of the crop through the Bangladesh Jute Corporation and persuaded private mills to buy more raw jute than justified by their own projections of demand.

Jute is a highly labor-intensive crop, much more so than rice, but the yield per hectare is also higher than is generally achieved for rice. When the farm-gate price for jute is 50 percent higher than the price for rice, farmers respond by planting more land in jute at the expense of rice. With the expansion of irrigation facilities in the 1980s, the economic incentives to stick with rice have increased, but there may be scope for increasing jute production by substituting it for the low-yield broadcast Aus rice grown on un-irrigated land during the same season as jute. The fact that jute production is so labor intensive has played to Bangladesh's strength, given the country's large rural underemployment. Because wage rates in Bangladesh have been lower than in other jute-producing countries and because Bangladesh has the ideal growing conditions for jute, the country has benefited from encouraging its production even when world price and demand projections have offered bleak prospects. High as Bangladesh's share of world trade has been--in 1985 it amounted to 77 percent of all raw jute trade and 45 percent of jute goods--there are realistic possibilities for expanding the share still further. The World Bank has estimated that Bangladesh's share could rise to 84 percent for raw jute and 55 percent for manufactures. Jute production appeared in the late 1980s to be an essential part of the long-term development plan because, for all the troubles and struggles associated with its planting and marketing, no alternative activity offered any promise of being more profitable.

Many economists believe the key to preservation of the viability of jute as an international commodity lies in maintaining price and supply stability. That has proved a difficult task. Of thirty major primary commodities traded internationally, only about six have as much price and supply instability as jute. Demand is highly sensitive to price increases, but not nearly as sensitive to decreases; once a portion of the market is lost to synthetics, it is very difficult to win it back through price competition. For example, in FY 1986 export sales remained low despite a 35-percent decline in export prices; the fall in world oil prices had also resulted in declines in the prices of polypropylene substitutes for jute as well, and most buyers that had switched to synthetics chose not to return to jute. In the late 1980s, there was nothing in the offing to arrest the trend of several decades of decreasing global demand for jute and declines in the value of jute relative to the goods Bangladesh must import to meet the basic needs of a desperately poor economy.

The government has an ongoing responsibility to monitor the jute situation, to intervene when necessary, and to preserve the economic viability of the commodity responsible for one-third of the nation's foreign trade earnings. It sets floor prices and becomes the buyer of last resort. In 1986 buffer-stock operations were extended through the Bangladesh Jute Corporation and resulted in the government's buying 30 percent of the entire crop. These stocks then become available for use by the government-owned Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation or for sale to private mills or overseas customers. But in this case, the limitations of this government tool were demonstrated the next year, when the jute crop was of normal volume but the price of raw jute fell a further 35 percent, to the lowest levels in a decade. The government could not arrest the decline because its financial resources and storage capacity were already stretched to the breaking point.

Some hope for a better future has been placed in cooperation among jute-producing countries through the International Jute Organization, based in Dhaka. Member countries in 1988 were the producing countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Thailand and more than twenty consuming countries, including the United States. The goals of the fledgling International Jute Organization were appropriately modest to begin with, centering on better dissemination of basic information, coordination of agricultural and industrial research and of economic studies, and steps toward coordination of marketing. It remained to be seen in mid-1988 whether this poorly financed new organization, representing the first feeble effort at a coordinated approach to the problems of jute, would be effective in arresting its long decline as an important international commodity.


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Jute in Answers.com


Word Origin of Jute - Cited by Houghton Mifflin Company


Jute - from Bengali. This word originated in Bangladesh. Only three languages in the world are spoken by more people than Bengali. And Bengali-speaking Bangladesh leads the world in exporting jute, our most important import from that language. Jute entered English in the eighteenth century when English trade began in earnest with India and Bengal. The log of the English ship Wake notes at 8 a.m. on September, 22, 1746: "Sent on shore 60 Bales of Gunney belonging to the Company with all the Jute Rope ... 20 Ropes in all, 116 Bundles."

Jute is a natural fiber, made from the bark of a tree also known as jute that grows especially in the Brahmaputra River valley of present-day Bangladesh. The "Golden Fiber" makes not only ropes, yarn, and twine but also mats, rugs, bags, shoes, and clothes. As it became known and widely traded, jute displaced flax as the chief plant fiber of the English-speaking world. Flax mills in Dundee, Scotland, for example, converted to jute in the nineteenth century.

With nearly two hundred million speakers, Bengali is the fourth most populous language in the world, behind only Chinese, English, and Spanish, and ahead of Russian, Japanese, German, French, Arabic, and all others. It is an Indo-European language belonging to the Indo-Iranian and Indic branches. Other English words from Bengali include chaulmoogra (a tree, 1815) and gavial (a crocodile, 1825). The word bungalow (1676) comes from the name Bengali but is actually a Hindi word meaning "of Bengal."

Encyclopedia on Jute - Cited by Columbia University Press


jute (jūt) , name for any plant of the genus Corchorus, tropical annuals of the family Tiliaceae (linden family), and for its fiber. Many species yield fiber, but the chief sources of commercial jute are two Indian species (C. capsularis and C. olitorius), grown primarily in the Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. Although jute adapts well to loamy soil in any hot and humid region, cultivation and harvesting require abundant cheap labor, and India remains the unrivaled world producer as well as the chief fiber processor. Calcutta is the main center. Europe and the United States import large quantities of jute fiber and cloth; Dundee, Scotland, is also a major jute-textile manufacturer. The fiber strands in the bark are 6 to 10 ft long (2–3 m) and are separated from the woody stalk centers by retting. The fiber deteriorates quickly and, because of its uneven diameter and comparatively low cellulose content, is relatively weak. However, because of its low cost and the ease of dyeing and spinning, jute is the principal coarse fiber in commercial production and use. About 90% is spun into yarn for fabrics; the better qualities supply burlap and the poorer grades are used for baling and sacking (e.g., gunny sacks). It is also used for twine, rope, carpet and linoleum backing, and insulation. The discarded lower ends, called jute butts, are used for paper manufacture. The plant, cultivated in India from remote times, has been known to Western commerce only since about 1830. Jute is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Malvales, family Tiliaceae.


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Jute in Banglapedia


Jute dicotyledenous fibre-yielding plant of the genus Corchorus, order Tiliaceae. Jute was once known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. Jute fibre is produced mainly from two commercially important species, namely White Jute (Corchours capsularis), and Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius). The centre of origin of white jute is said to be Indo-Burma including South China, and that of tossa Africa. The word jute is probably coined from the word jhuta or jota, an Orrisan word. However, the use of jutta potta cloth was mentioned both in the Bible and Monushanghita-Mahabharat. This indicates the ancient uses of jute materials by the people of these areas. There is evidence of the trade of jute cloth in the 16th century. ain-i-akbari (1590) mentions sackcloth originating from Bengal.

Jute grows under wide variation of climatic conditions and stress of tropic and subtropics. It is grown in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brazil and some other countries. Bangladesh used to enjoy almost a monopoly of this fibre commercially; its share in the export market was 80% in 1947-48 but in 1975-76 it fell to only 25%. This fall in the world market was due to the fact that many countries had started growing jute and allied fibres. The substitutes of jute are multiwalled paper bags, poly-propelin, polythylene, and natural fibres from kenaf, hemp, sida, sunhemp, etc. Jute fibres are used in hessians and gunnies, carpet and rugs, paper, canvas, tarpaulin, handicrafts, etc. Dundi (UK) purchases high class jute of all grades, particularly white and tossa. Belgium, Italy, USA, South America are the buyers of superior quality jute.

Jute was cultivated in ancient times in Bengal. At that time it was more or less a garden plant and its leaves were used as a vegetable and for medicinal purposes. Jute grows well where the annual rainfall is 1500 mm or more, with at least 250 mm during each of the months of March, April and May. The optimum range of temperature required is 18 -33 C. Jute is cultivated in the rainy season. In Bangladesh sowing usually starts at the end of February and continues up to the end of May, depending on the species. Cultivation largely depends upon pre-monsoon showers and moisture conditions. C. capsularis is more water tolerant and thus generally can be grown in low lands, and even under water logging conditions, while C. olitorious is more susceptible to water logging and hence cultivated in medium to lower medium lands. Jute can be grown in a number of soil types, ranging from clay to sandy loam with optimum fertility, and soil pH ranging from 5.0-8.6.

Jute is basically self-pollinated and has fourteen diploid chromosomes. It needs long day light for growth. After sowing, four to five months are needed for harvesting of crops. This is done at the flowering stage. The fibre is obtained from the bast or phloem layer of the stem. Jute cultivation is labour intensive and is mostly grown by marginal, poor, and small landowners. For successful cultivation, land preparation is very important. It needs 3-5 times cross ploughing and laddering for uniform smooth soil, which must have more than 20% organic content. Cow dung is generally used, along with NPK in appropriate proportion, according to the soil type. In Bangladesh farmers generally do not use any fertiliser in jute cultivation. However, when used it must be applied in three stages; one at land preparation, and two as top dressing at appropriate time. During cultivation weeding is usually done in addition to thinning.

Generally, 10-12 kg/ha seed is sown by the broadcasting method. In line sowing, lower amount of seeds is required. Traditionally, farmers keep a small part of the crop area for growing seeds until the seeds mature in October/November. After harvesting, plants are bundled together with required number of plants, and kept standing for 5-7 days in the field for shading off the leaves. Then the bundles are put under water. Clear slow flowing water is the best thing possible for good retting. After 12-15 days, when proper retting is completed, the fibre is separated from the stick by hand and then washed and dried in sunlight. After drying, farmers sell the fibre in the local market.

Although jute is grown in almost all the districts of Bangladesh, Faridpur, Tangail, Jessore, Dhaka, Sirajganj, Bogra, and Jamalpur are considered the better growing areas. Total area under the crop is estimated to be 559,838 ha and the total production about 5310,500 bales. bangladesh jute research institute (BJRI) so far has developed about 27 high-yielding and good quality jute cultivars.

Jute products Jute and jute-based products are put to a wide range of uses. Since antiquity it has been used as a raw material for packaging. Before being used as a commercial commodity it was used in different parts of the world to make household and farm implements such as ropes, hand made clothes, wall hangings, etc. In Bengal sacks and saris made of jute were commonly used in the Middle Age. Export of sacks started in the 18th century. Its leaves and roots were used as herbal medicine, and as vegetable by the local people. Its use as an industrial commodity began in the Crimean war when it was used as a substitute of flax. Its use was popularised primarily in Western Europe, particularly at Dundee. Traditionally, use of jute products are limited to packaging materials like twine, hessian, gunny bag, twill, carpet backing, wool pack, tarpaulin, mats, canvas, wall cover, upholstery, and as furnishing fabrics of different types and natures.

Jute research Jute being a cash crop, by 1900 a fibre expert was appointed by the government of undivided Bengal at the direction of the India Government. He developed a number of superior varieties like Kakya Bombai, D154 (Dhaka 154), and CG (Chinsurah Green). In 1938, the Indian Jute Research Institute was established at Dhaka and technological laboratory was set up at Tullyganj in Kolkata. Jute research was once again initiated at Dhaka through the creating of the Central Jute Committee in 1951 by the Ministry of Agriculture. A Jute Research Institute was established at Tejgaon, Dhaka, in 1957. Located on Manik Mia Avenue at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, the Institute is now named as Bangladesh Jute Research Institute.

The Jute Regulation Directorate was established in 1940 by the provincial government for the regulation of the crop. This department was setup to regulate the cultivation and production of jute and to ensure that it was grown in fixed areas and to see farmers did not grow it more areas than assigned. A Jute Board was set up in 1949 which used to regulate the entire jute trade, and was assisted by the Jute Trading Corporation, Jute Price Stabilization Corporation, and Jute Marketing Corporation. In 1973 the Jute Division was created and put under the direct control of the Finance Ministry so that it could look exclusively on various aspects of jute. In 1976 this Division was converted into full-fledged ministry. Now the International Jute Organisation has its head office in Dhaka. [ABM Abdullah and Md. Anwarul Islam] [Webmaster's Note: International Jute Organisation (IJO) has been demolished in 2001 and most of its resources and learnings have been handed over to the new organization named International Jute Study Group (IJSG).]

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Jute in Perdue University


Corchorus olitorius L. (Tossa Jute)


While perhaps better known as a fiber crop, jute is also a medicinal "vegetable", eaten from Tanganyika to Egypt. Dried leaves were given me by an Egyptian friend who had brought them with him to this country. They are used in soups under the Arabic name "Molukhyia." In India the leaves and tender shoots are eaten. The dried material is there known as "nalita." Injections of olitoriside markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin.


Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf)


Kenaf is cultivated for its bast fibers which resemble and substitute for jute fibers. Fiber strands, 1.5–3 m long, are used for rope, cordage, canvas, sacking, carpet backing, and fishing nets. It is cultivated secondarily for the seeds which contain about 20% oil, used for: salad, cooking, and lubricant oils. Oil is also used in the manufacture of soap, linoleum, paints and varnishes, and for illumination. In 1968, Florida used 600 ha growing kenaf for bean poles (Whitely, 1981). Recently the pulp has been used in paper-making. Leaves are used as a potherb. A concentrated food for cattle in the form of seed-cake comes from the residue after oil extraction. Africans use soot from the stems as a black pigment. They also use a piece of the stem as a base for drilling fire.


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